Ranbaxy, Quintiles, Sun Pharma, Cadila, Nicholas Piramal, Lupin and many others have set up world-class clinical research centers in India to bring the drug from mind to market.

The trials in India are mostly in different areas like oncology, endocrinology, traumatology, sports medicine, pulmonary diseases, pediatric diseases and infectious diseases. Clinical trials of bio-tech and medicinal products for approval purposes are done usually in hospitals in India. Most of the hospitals conduct clinical trials, if they have doctors interested in this activity. Information on the terms and conditions and the cost is not readily available.

All types of hospitals carry out clinical trials, large and small as also municipal and government hospitals. Large private hospitals and clinics too perform this work. The basic requirement is the presence of doctors who have an interest in this work. Pharmaceutical majors that are into breakthrough clinical trials in India

Here are some of them:

Eli Lilly: The global pharmaceutical giant has 17 large and small clinical research projects running in 40 hospitals across India.

The company's clinical trials are to test if Xigris, which is indicated for reduction of mortality in adult patients, can be used for sepsis. Eli Lilly has already held clinical trials involving more than 600 patients for Human Insulin and Insulin Lispro. It is also these days conducting trials on oncology, and developing a new molecule for lung cancer.

Pfizer: The pharma giant has picked up six cities in the northeastern states of India to conduct clinical trials on 300 patients on a new malaria 'cocktail' drug that combines chloroquine (to which Indian malarial strains have developed resistance) and azithromycin, an antibiotic.

Pfizer is also carrying out clinical trials for drugs to treat osteoporosis, breast cancer and schizophrenia. Pfizer's cumulative investment on clinical research in India is believed to be $13 million.

Roche:  The Swiss pharma major has set up clinical trial sites in India as part of its global trials for treatment of a particular variant of lung cancer. One of the reasons for considering India is that it has a vast patient population infected by this type of lung cancer, which is primarily triggered by use of tobacco products.

India is also being considered a prospective site for Roche's future clinical trials involving new drugs and therapies for treatment of different variants of blood cancer and colorectal diseases.

SIRO Clinpharm: SIRO is currently conducting clinical trial projects in over 30 hospitals across the country for several clients from Europe, Japan, the United States and also India.

Clinigene International: The Bangalore-based Clinigene says India's huge population allows new-drug studies to be completed much faster. Last year, when a biotechnology company from the US needed 400 diabetics for a study, Clinigene began by heading to a nearby hospital specialising in diabetes, where a dozen new patients arrive every day and more than 40,000 are in its records.

Wellquest: Wellquest, the clinical trials division of the Nicholas Piramal Group, is conducting 40 drug product tests in five cities across the country. The company has 75 beds for patients on whom clinical trials are being carried out.